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Health care products Kidneys & Related Sickness

Doris Cai / 2011-12-20
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Health care products Kidneys & Related Diseases
Health care products Kidneys can get damaged by sudden acute loss of blood and cause sudden kidney (renal) failure. This rapid drop in the kidney function is called acute renal failure. When ARF occurs, waste products, such as nitrogen, salt and fluid can accumulate, upsetting the body’s normal chemical balance. Chemicals and electrolytes, such as sodium, potassium, and calcium, which are needed for normal body functioning, become toxic to the body when they reach abnormally high or low levels.

Types
There are three types of acute renal failure. They are :
Prerenal ARF – The most common type, affecting the flow of blood before it reaches the kidneys
Postrenal ARF – Also known as obstructive renal failure is caused by the blockage in the urinary tract.
Intrinsic renal ARF - The problems with the kidney itself that prevent proper filtration of blood or production of urine. It is the most complicated form.
Causes
The main caused of ARF are sudden serious drop in blood flow to the kidneys, . operation, injury in an accident,
inhaling or swallowing certain toxins, heart attack or a serious infection can cause ARF. It usually occurs in people who are already seriously ill and are in the hospital or intensive care. Diabetes, high blood pressure, heart failure, chronic renal insufficiency, liver disease, obesity and advanced age are some risk factors for Acute Renal Failure. People having heart surgery and abdominal surgery also have an increased risk.
Signs and Symptoms
Symptoms of Acute renal failure depend on the cause of the problem. The most common symptom of ARF is decreased urine output. Other symptoms may include :
*Swelling of the hands, Face or feet
*Blood loss, Causing a drop in blood pressure
*Shortness of breath
*Sudden blockage of urine drainage
*Rapid, Irregular heart rate
*Nausea, Vomiting, and Loss of appetite
Diagnosis
The cause of ARF can be determined thorough history and physical examination, blood tests, urine studies and a renal ultrasound examination.
Acute Renal Failure is usually diagnosed using blood and urine tests to check kidney function. These tests include blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, complete blood count (CBC) and a urinalysis.
Health care products Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test - This test measures the amount of nitrogen in your blood that comes from the waste product urea. A BUN test is done to estimate the functioning of kidney. The BUN level increases, if the kidneys are not able to remove urea from the blood. Heart failure, dehydration, certain medicines, intestinal bleeding can also increase the BUN level. Liver disease or damage can decrease the BUN level
Serum creatinine -This test measure the level of the waste product creatinine in the blood and urine. If the kidneys are damaged and cannot function normally, the amount of creatinine in the urine decreases while the amount of creatinine in the blood increases.
Complete blood count (CBC) – A CBC provides important information about the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. It can be used to check for diseases or infections that could be causing renal failure.
Urinalysis - Urinalysis examine the sample of the urine for color, clarity, odor, concentration, and acidity. It also checks for abnormal levels of protein, sugar, and blood cells or other substances found in the urine. The presence of protein in the urine indicates kidney damage.
Complications
Complications of renal failure can affect the entire body, including the digestive system, heart, lungs, and nervous system. Infection is one of the most common complications because the body’s immune system may stop working properly. Another serious complication, Uremic syndrome (uremia) can cause severe nausea, confusion, psychosis, irregular heart beats and fluid in lungs. Fatigue and weight loss are common symptoms of uremia. Anemia can also occur from renal failure. Other complications are electrolyte imbalance including hyperkalemia which can cause cardiac-irregularities and cardiac-arrest if unchecked.
Most causes of acute renal failure can be treated and the kidney function will return to normal with time. But at the same time it can cause permanent loss of kidney function leading to Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)
Treatment
The treatment for acute renal failure depends upon the cause and extent of the kidney failure. It also depends on the extent to which accumulating wastes and water are affecting the body. After examining the main cause of ARF, a kidney specialist (nephrologist or urologist) can take treatment decisions about medications and the need for dialysis. The treatment will be focused on removing the cause of the kidney failure and may include :   Correcting the underlying cause of kidney failure, such as dehydration or medication toxicity. Providing supportive care for the kidneys through dialysis. Preventing other complications, such as infection or fluid or electrolyte imbalances.
Dialysis - It is a mechanical process that performs the work of healthy kidneys for people who have kidney failure. Before dialysis, a dialysis access has to the created in the patients body. Dialysis access is the spot where the needle can be inserted so that blood or other fluids can be removed, filtered, and returned to the body during dialysis. Hemodialysis and Peritoneal dialysis are the two types used in the treatment of ARF.
Hemodialysis - It is the most common and effective treatment for ARF, done by accessing the blood vessels through the skin. Hemodialysis uses a mechanical membrane (dialyzer) with a special filter that removes waste and excess water from the blood. The patient is connected to the machine by a tube running from a conduit created surgically between a large artery and vein. The blood is circulated through the artificial kidney, which removes toxins and wastes. The blood is then returned to your body. Hemodialysis typically takes 3-4 hours and is needed 3 times a week.
Peritoneal dialysis - The peritoneum is the clear membrane that covers the internal organs inside the abdomen. Peritoneal dialysis uses the lining of the abdominal cavity as a filter to clean blood and remove excess fluid. A catheter is implanted into the abdomen by a minor surgical procedure and a fluid (dialysate solution) is infused through this. The dialysate solution, left for a few hours, capture and eliminate the waste products from your blood. The most common form of peritoneal dialysis called continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) changes dialysate four times a day.
After Treatment
ARF patients has to do appropriate lab tests and must follow a special diet. Substances that can poison or damage kidney tissues should be avoided. Drink enough fluids to keep the kidneys functioning as they should. They have to control the intake of protein and minerals. To stay healthy on being dialysis, it is important to eat the right number of calories and nutrients.
 

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